The context, meaning and scope of Tourism Reading Answers- IELTS SampleUpdated on 20 December, 2022
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The IELTS Reading Section is one of the most important aspects of the IELTS exam. To prepare better for this section, here is a reading passage for practice on the topic ‘The context, meaning, and scope of Tourism,’ with questions and answers.
Travel has existed since the beginning of time, when primitive man set out, often traversing great distances in search of game, which provided the food and clothing necessary for his survival. Throughout the course of history, people have travelled for purposes of trade, religious conviction, economic gain, war, migration and other equally compelling motivations. In the Roman era, wealthy aristocrats and high government officials also travelled for pleasure. Seaside resorts located at Pompeii and Herculaneum afforded citizens the opportunity to escape to their vacation villas in order to avoid the summer heat of Rome. Travel, except during the Dark Ages, has continued to grow and, throughout recorded history, has played a vital role in the development of civilizations and their economies.
Tourism in the mass form as we know it today is a distinctly twentieth-century phenomenon. Historians suggest that the advent of mass tourism began in England during the industrial revolution with the rise of the middle class and the availability of relatively inexpensive transportation. The creation of the commercial airline industry following the Second World War and the subsequent development of the jet aircraft in the 1950s signalled the rapid growth and expansion of international travel. This growth led to the development of a major new industry: tourism. In turn, international tourism became the concern of a number of world governments since it not only provided new employment opportunities but also produced a means of earning foreign exchange.
Tourism today has grown significantly in both economic and social importance. In most industrialised countries over the past few years the fastest growth has been seen in the area of services. One of the largest segments of the service industry, although largely unrecognised as an entity in some of these countries, is travel and tourism. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council (1992), travel and tourism is the largest industry in the world on virtually any economic measure including value-added capital investment, employment and tax contributions,. In 1992’ the industry’s gross output was estimated to be $3.5 trillion, over 12 per cent of all consumer spending. The travel and tourism industry is the world’s largest employer the almost 130 million jobs, or almost 7 per cent of all employees. This industry is the world’s leading industrial contributor, producing over 6 per cent of the world’s national product and accounting for capital investment in excess of $422 billion m direct indirect and personal taxes each year. Thus, tourism has a profound impact both on the world economy and, because of the educative effect of travel and the effects on employment, on society itself.
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However, the major problems of the travel and tourism industry that have hidden, or obscured, its economic impact are the diversity and fragmentation of the industry itself. The travel industry includes: hotels, motels and other types of accommodation; restaurants and other food services; transportation services and facilities; amusements, attractions and other leisure facilities; gift shops and a large number of other enterprises. Since many of these businesses also serve local residents, the impact of spending by visitors can easily be overlooked or underestimated. In addition, Meis (1992) points out that the tourism industry involves concepts that have remained amorphous to both analysts and decision makers. Moreover, in all nations this problem has made it difficult for the industry to develop any type of reliable or credible tourism information base in order to estimate the contribution it makes to regional, national and global economies. However, the nature of this very diversity makes travel and tourism ideal vehicles for economic development in a wide variety of countries, regions or communities.
Once the exclusive province of the wealthy, travel and tourism have become an institutionalised way of life for most of the population. In fact, McIntosh and Goeldner (1990) suggest that tourism has become the largest commodity in international trade for many nations and, for a significant number of other countries, it ranks second or third. For example, tourism is the major source of income in Bermuda, Greece, Italy, Spain, Switzerland and most Caribbean countries. In addition, Hawkins and Ritchie, quoting from data published by the American Express Company, suggest that the travel and tourism industry is the number one ranked employer in the Bahamas, Brazil, Canada, France, (the former) West Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Singapore, the United Kingdom and the United States. However, because of problems of definition, which directly affect statistical measurement, it is not possible with any degree of certainty to provide precise, valid or reliable data about the extent of world-wide tourism participation or its economic impact. In many cases, similar difficulties arise when attempts are made to measure domestic tourism.
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Reading Passage has five paragraphs, A-E.
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs B-E from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number, i-vii,in boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet
Guidelines/Tip for Answering These Types of Questions: Candidates have to choose the right answer for the questions from the list of options provided. To answer these questions, read the passage carefully before choosing the right heading.
List of Headings
i. Economic and social significance of tourism
ii. The development of mass tourism
iii. Travel for the wealthy
iv. Earning foreign exchange through tourism
v. Difficulty in recognizing the economic effects of tourism
vi. The contribution of air travel to tourism
vii. The world impact of tourism
viii. The history of travel
1 Paragraph B
2 Paragraph C
3 Paragraph D
4 Paragraph E
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Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In boxes 5-10 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE The statement in the question matches with the account in the text
FALSE The statement in the question contradicts with the account in the text
NOT GIVEN The statement in the question has no clear connection with the account in the text
Guidelines/Tip for Answering These Types of Questions: Candidates have to identify the statements that agree with the passage by tallying them with the information provided in the passage. To answer these questions, read the passage carefully before marking it as True or False.
5. The largest employment figures in the world are found in the travel and tourism industry.
6. Tourism contributes over six per cent of the Australian gross national product.
7. Tourism has a social impact because it promotes recreation.
8. Two main features of the travel and tourism industry make its economic significance difficult to ascertain.
9. Visitor spending is always greater than the spending of residents in tourist areas.
10. It is easy to show statistically how tourism affects individual economies.
Complete the sentences below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 11-13 on your answer sheet.
Guidelines/Tip for Answering These Types of Questions: Candidates are asked to answer this type of questions in no more than 3 words. You can quickly scan the passage to answer these questions.
Question 11: In Greece, tourism is the most important ___________.
Question 12: The travel and tourism industry in Jamaica is the major ___________.
Question 13: The problems associated with measuring international tourism are often reflected in the measurement of __________.
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|1||ii||In Paragraph B, the author discusses tourism in the first line. The author writes, “... Mass tourism began to develop in England during the industrial revolution when the middle class started to grow and affordable transportation became more common.|
|2||i||The first line of paragraph C discusses the growth of tourism in today’s world. This first sentence summarizes the entire paragraph and shows tourism's economic and social significance.|
|3||v||Some of the major problems with the travel and tourism industry have overshadowed its economic impact with its diversity and fragmentation. Consequently, the economic impacts of tourism are becoming more difficult to identify (hidden/obscured). Thus, causing difficulty in recognizing the economic effects of tourism.|
|4||vii||The article demonstrates that tourism is the largest commodity traded internationally for many nations, and second or third for many others which shows the impact of tourism in the world.|
|5||TRUE||The answer to this question lies in the employment figures. In other words, we have to find words such as 'employment', 'employee', 'employer', etc. In paragraph C, the author writes, "With almost 130 million jobs, the travel and tourism industry is the world's largest employer."|
Please take a moment to read paragraph D carefully. As the first line states, "However, the major problems of the travel and tourism industry that have obscured the impact of their economic activities are their diversity and fragmentation."
Two main features of the travel and tourism industry (diversity and fragmentation) have made its economic significance difficult to determine (hidden).
At the end of paragraph E, pay attention to the last sentence. Nonetheless, due to definition issues that directly affect the statistical measurement, obtaining precise, valid, and reliable data on worldwide tourism participation or economic impacts is impossible with any degree of certainty.
It is not so easy to present statistics (statistical measurements) about tourism's impact statistically (with any degree of certainty).
|11||source of income / industry||The last paragraph (paragraph E), lines 5-7, mentions Greece: "For example, tourism is the main source of revenue for Bermuda, Greece, Italy, Spain, Switzerland and most Caribbean countries."|
|12||employer||Check out lines 8-10 of paragraph E, where the author writes, “......“ Among the top employers worldwide are the Bahamas, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany (formerly) West, Hong Kong, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Singapore, the United Kingdom, and the United States..” Here, number one ranked means major.|
|13||domestic tourism||You can see the last lines of paragraph E, which says, “However, due to definitional issues, which directly affect the statistical measurement, it is impossible to provide accurate, valid, or reliable information about worldwide tourism participation or its economic impact with any degree of certainty. A similar problem arises when measuring domestic tourism in many cases. Here, similar difficulties arise, means reflected.|
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