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Moles Happy as Homes Go Underground

Updated on 09 January, 2023
Mrinal Mandal

Mrinal Mandal

Study Abroad Expert

The passage- Moles happy as homes go underground, is vital for your IELTS reading section preparations. You will find the questions and answers in this guide, along with suitable insights to help you out. With appropriate practice time spent on passages like these, you will be ready to take the examination head-on. 


The first anybody knew about Dutchman Frank Siegmunds and his family was when workmen tramping through a field found a narrow steel chimney protruding through the grass. Closer inspection revealed a chink of sky-light window among the thistles, and when amazed investigators moved down the side of the hill they came across a pine door complete with leaded diamond glass and a brass knocker set into an underground building. The Siegmunds had managed to live undetected for six years outside the border town of Breda, in Holland. They are the latest in a clutch of individualistic homemakers who have burrowed underground in search of tranquillity.

Most, falling foul of strict building regulations, have been forced to dismantle their individualistic homes and return to more conventional lifestyles. But subterranean suburbia, Dutch-style, is about to become respectable and chic. Seven luxury homes cosseted away inside a high earth-covered noise embankment next to the main Tilburg city road recently went on the market for $296,500 each. The foundations had yet to be dug, but customers queued up to buy the unusual part-submerged houses, whose back wall consists of a grassy mound and whose front is a long glass gallery.


The Dutch are not the only would-be moles. Growing numbers of Europeans are burrowing below ground to create houses, offices, discos and shopping malls. It is already proving a way of life in extreme climates; in winter months in Montreal, Canada, for instance, citizens can escape the cold in an underground complex complete with shops and even health clinics. In Tokyo builders are planning a massive underground city to be begun in the next decade, and underground shopping malls are already common in Japan, where 90 percent of the population is squeezed into 20 percent of the landspace.


Building big commercial buildings underground can be a way to avoid disfiguring or threatening a beautiful or “environmentally sensitive” landscape. Indeed many of the buildings which consume most land - such as cinemas, supermarkets, theatres, warehouses or libraries - have no need to be on the surface since they do not need windows. 


There are big advantages, too, when it comes to private homes. A development of 194 houses which would take up 14 hectares of land above ground would occupy 2.7 hectares below it, while the number of roads would be halved. Under several metres of earth, noise is minimal and insulation is excellent. “We get 40 to 50 enquiries a week,” says Peter Carpenter, secretary of the British Earth Sheltering Association, which builds similar homes in Britain. "People see this as a way of building for the future." An underground dweller himself, Carpenter has never paid a heating bill, thanks to solar panels and natural insulation.

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In Europe the obstacle has been conservative local authorities and developers who prefer to ensure quick sales with conventional mass produced housing. But the Dutch development was greeted with undisguised relief by South Limburg planners because of Holland's chronic shortage of land. It was the Tilburg architect Jo Hurkmans who hit on the idea of making use of noise embankments on main roads. His two- floored, four-bedroomed, two- bathroomed detached homes are now taking shape. "They are not so much below the earth as in it," he says. "All the light will come through the glass front, which runs from the second floor ceiling to the ground. Areas which do not need much natural lighting are at the back. The living accommodation is to the front so nobody notices that the back is dark." 


In the US, where energy-efficient homes became popular after the oil crisis of 1973, 10,000 underground houses have been built. A terrace of five homes, Britain's first subterranean development, is under way in Nottinghamshire. Italy's outstanding example of subterranean architecture is the Olivetti residential centre in Ivrea. Commissioned by Roberto Olivetti in 1969, it comprises 82 one-bedroomed apartments and 12 maisonettes and forms a house/ hotel for Olivetti employees. It is built into a hill and little can be seen from outside except a glass facade. Patnzia Vallecchi, a resident since 1992, says it is little different from living in a conventional apartment.


Not everyone adapts so well, and in Japan scientists at the Shimizu Corporation have developed "space creation" systems which mix light, sounds, breezes and scents to stimulate people who spend long periods below ground. Underground offices in Japan are being equipped with "virtual" windows and mirrors, while underground departments in the University of Minnesota have periscopes to reflect views and light. 


But Frank Siegmund and his family love their hobbit lifestyle. Their home evolved when he dug a cool room for his bakery business in a hill he had created. During a heatwave they took to sleeping there. "We felt at peace and so close to nature," he says. "Gradually I began adding to the rooms. It sounds strange but we are so close to the earth we draw strength from its vibrations. Our children love it; not every child can boast of being watched through their playroom windows by rabbits. 

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Questions 1-8

This reading passage comes with nine paragraphs between A and I. You must select the appropriate heading for every paragraph from the list below. Write the suitable number (i-xii) in boxes 1-8 on the answer sheet. 

Guideline: You will have to carefully consider the statements given, keeping in mind that there are more headings than the number of paragraphs in this case. Take your time before assigning a heading to a particular paragraph.

Heading List

i    A designer describes his houses

ii    Most people prefer conventional housing

iii    Simulating a natural environment

iv    How an underground family home developed

v    Demands on space and energy are reduced

vi    The plans for future homes

vii    Worldwide examples of underground living accommodation

viii    Some buildings do not require natural light

ix    Developing underground services around the world

x    Underground living improves health

xi    Homes sold before completion

xii    An underground home is discovered

1.Paragraph A

Answer: xii

Explanation: The first paragraph clearly talks about investigators who stumbled upon the underground home. 

2.Paragraph B

Answer: xi

Explanation: The paragraph mentions how seven luxury homes have already gone on the market, although the foundations have not been dug yet. Customers were still coming up to purchase these homes. 

3.Paragraph C

Answer: ix

Explanation: This paragraph clearly talks about how underground solutions are being explored by Europeans for building discos, homes, offices, shopping malls, and the like. It also talks about such activities in Tokyo and Montreal. 

4.Paragraph D

Answer: viii

Explanation: This passage talks about how commercial buildings can go underground and may not require windows. 

5.Paragraph E

Answer: v

Explanation: The passage talks about how people are developing for the future since there are minimal demands on energy and space, with no payments required for heating, for instance. 

6.Paragraph F

Answer: i

Explanation: This paragraph has a clear explanation where the Tilburg architect Jo Hurkmans has talked about his four-bedroom and two-floored detached homes with two bathrooms. 

7.Paragraph G

Answer: vii

Explanation: This is quite obvious since this paragraph has examples of energy-efficient homes in the US and also the Italian Olivetti residential center, along with Britain’s Nottinghamshire development. 

8.Paragraph H

Answer: iii

Explanation: This paragraph mentions how Shimizu Corporation scientists are coming up with their space creation systems that fuse sounds, light, scents, and breezes for simulating natural environments. There are other examples given as well. 

9.Paragraph I

Answer: iv

Explanation: Once again, this is obvious since it mentions how Frank Siegmund and his family developed their home and how it evolved from the cool room he built for his bakery business. 

Questions 9-14

Complete the sentences given below with words that you take from the passage. Do not use any more than three words for every single answer. 

Write the answers in boxes 9-14 on your sheet. 

9) Many developers prefer mass-produced houses because they_____________ quickly

Answer: Sell (You will find in paragraph F the portion where it talks of developers who prefer mass-produced housing units since they sell faster)

10) The Dutch development was welcomed by____________. 

Answer: Planners (You will find this in paragraph F, where it talks of how South Limburg planners welcomed this development due to the shortage of land in Holland)

11) Hurkmans’ houses are built into_____________________. 

Answer: Embankments (This answer is present in paragraph F as well, where it talks about how he envisioned using noise embankments on the main roads)

12) The Ivrea Centre was developed for_________________. 

Answer: Olivetti employees (This answer is present in paragraph G, where it clearly talks about how the development is for employees of the company)

13) Japanese scientists are helping people_______ underground life. 

Answer: Adapt to (You will find this answer in paragraph H, where it talks of how Japanese scientists are using simulation techniques to help people adapt to life underground) 

14) Frank Siegmunds’ first underground room was used for__________. 

Answer: A cool room/ his bakery business (This is mentioned in the last paragraph, where Siegmunds talks about digging a cool room for his bakery business)

Answer Table

1. xi8. iv
2. ix9. sell 
3. viii10.  planners
4. v11. embankments
5. i12. Olivetti employees
6. vii13. adapt to
7. iii14. his bakery business / a cool room

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