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A Spark a Flint How Fire Leapt to Life Reading Answers- IELTS Sample

Updated on 20 December, 2022
Mrinal Mandal

Mrinal Mandal

Study Abroad Expert

The best way to crack the IELTS reading examinations is by practicing as many IELTS sample papers as possible. To help you do that, here is a reading passage for practice on the topic ''A Spark a Flint How Fire Leapt to Life' complete with questions and answers.

A Spark a Flint How Fire Leapt to Life

To early man, fire was a divine gift randomly delivered in the form of lightning, forest fire or burning lava. Unable to make flame for themselves, the earliest people probably stored fire by keeping slow burning logs alight or by carrying charcoal in pots.

How and where man learnt how to produce flame at will is unknown. It was probably a secondary invention, accidentally made during tool-making operations with wood or stone. Studies of primitive societies suggest that the earliest method of making fire was through friction. European peasants would insert a wooden drill in a round hole and rotate it briskly between their palms This process could be speeded up by wrapping a cord around the drill and pulling on each end.

The Ancient Greeks used lenses or concave mirrors to concentrate the sun’s rays and burning glasses were also used by Mexican Aztecs and the Chinese.

Percussion methods of fire-lighting date back to Paleolithic times, when some Stone Age tool-makers discovered that chipping flints produced sparks. The technique became more efficient after the discovery of iron, about 5000 years ago In Arctic North America, the Eskimos produced a slow-burning spark by striking quartz against iron pyrites, a compound that contains sulphur. The Chinese lit their fires by striking porcelain with bamboo. In Europe, the combination of steel, flint and tinder remained the main method of fire-lighting until the mid 19th century.

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Fire-lighting was revolutionized by the discovery of phosphorus, isolated in 1669 by a German alchemist trying to transmute silver into gold. Impressed by the element’s combustibility, several 17th-century chemists used it to manufacture fire-lighting devices, but the results were dangerously inflammable. With phosphorus costing the equivalent of several hundred pounds per ounce, the first matches were expensive.

The quest for a practical match really began after 1781 when a group of French chemists came up with the Phosphoric Candle or Ethereal Match, a sealed glass tube containing a twist of paper tipped with phosphorus. When the tube was broken, air rushed in, causing the phosphorus to self-combust. An even more hazardous device, popular in America, was the Instantaneous Light Box — a bottle filled with sulphuric acid into which splints treated with chemicals were dipped.

The first matches resembling those used today were made in 1827 by John Walker, an English pharmacist who borrowed the formula from a military rocket-maker called Congreve. Costing a shilling a box, Congreves were splints coated with sulphur and tipped with potassium chlorate. To light them, the user drew them quickly through folded glass paper.

Walker never patented his invention, and three years later it was copied by a Samuel Jones, who marketed his product as Lucifers. About the same time, a French chemistry student called Charles Sauria produced the first “strike-anywhere” match by substituting white phosphorus for the potassium chlorate in the Walker formula. However, since white phosphorus is a deadly poison, from 1845 match-makers exposed to its fumes succumbed to necrosis, a disease that eats away jaw-bones. It wasn’t until 1906 that the substance was eventually banned. 

That was 62 years after a Swedish chemist called Pasch had discovered non-toxic red or amorphous phosphorus, a development exploited commercially by Pasch’s compatriot J E Lundstrom in 1885. Lundstrom’s safety matches were safe because the red phosphorus was non-toxic; it was painted on to the striking surface instead of the match tip, which contained potassium chlorate with a relatively high ignition temperature of 182 degrees centigrade.

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America lagged behind Europe in match technology and safety standards. It wasn’t until 1900 that the Diamond Match Company bought a French patent for safety matches — but the formula did not work properly in the different climatic conditions prevailing in America and it was another 11 years before scientists finally adapted the French patent for the US.

The Americans, however, can claim several “firsts” in match technology and marketing. In 1892 the Diamond Match Company pioneered book matches. The innovation didn’t catch on until after 1896, when a brewery had the novel idea of advertising its product in match books. Today book matches are the most widely used type in the US, with 90 percent handed out free by hotels, restaurants and others.

Other American innovations include an anti-after-glow solution to prevent the match from smouldering after it has been blown out; and the waterproof match, which lights after eight hours in water.

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Questions 1-8

Complete the summary below. Choose your answers from the box at the bottom of the page and write them in boxes 1-8 on your answer sheet.

NB There are more words than spaces so you will not use them all You may use any of the words more than once.

Guidelines/Tip for Answering These Types of Questions: Candidates are required to be able to understand each section of the text in detail and paraphrase it. To do this, it is important that they know how to skim for information.

They tried to … (1) … burning logs or charcoal ... (2) … that they could create fire themselves. It is suspected that the first man-made flames were produced by … (3) …

The very first fire-lighting methods involved the creation of ... (4) … by, for example, rapidly … (5) … a wooden stick in a round hole. The use of … (6) … or persistent chipping was also widespread in Europe and among other peoples such as the Chinese and … (7) … . European practice of this method continued until the 1850s … (8) … the discovery of phosphorus some years earlier.

List of Words

Mexicans

Despite

Sunlight

Percussion

Unaware

Heating

Until

Random 

Preserve

Lacking

Chance

Without

Eskimos

smoke

Rotating

Realising

Heavenly

Friction

Make

Surprised


 

Questions 9-15

Look at the following notes that have been made about the matches described in Reading Passage 01 – A Spark A flint: How Fire Leapt To Life.

Decide which type of match (A-H) corresponds with each description and write your answers in boxes 9-15 on your answer sheet.

NB There are more matches than descriptions so you will not use them all. You may use any match more than once.

Guidelines/Tip for Answering These Types of Questions: Candidates are required to descriptions and characteristics and paraphrase them. They should also be able to skim for information.

NOTES

9) made using a less poisonous type of phosphorus

10) identical to a previous type of match

11) caused a deadly illness

12) first to look like modern matches

13) first matches used for advertising

14) relied on an airtight glass container

15) made with the help of an army design

A. the Ethereal Match

B. the Instantaneous Light box

C. Congreves

D. Lucifers

E. the first strike-anywhere match

F. Lundstrom’s safety match

G. book matches

H. waterproof matches

Question

Answer

Explanation

1

Preserve

We see in the first paragraph how the early man kept slow burning logs alight. We can see the use of the word ‘store’ in the same paragraph. This word is the closest to the word ‘preserve’

2

Unaware

The first paragraph informs us how early man was unable to produce fire. This means that they were unaware of how the fire was caused.

3

Chance

In the second paragraph, it is mentioned how man-made fire accidentally. The word ‘chance’ conveys the same meaning.

4

Friction

The earliest method of making fire is mentioned in the second paragraph. It involved the use of ‘friction’.

5

Rotating

The earliest method of producing flames used the friction caused by ‘rotating’ a wooden drill in a round hole.

6

Percussion

Percussion methods of lighting fire, dating back to Paleolithic times is mentioned in the fourth paragraph.

7

Eskimos

In the fourth paragraph, we can see how Eskimos used one of the percussion methods of striking quartz against iron pyrites to produce fire.

8

Despite

We see in the fifth paragraph how phosphorus was discovered but failed to gain popularity for several years because not only was it highly inflammable, but also expensive.

Question

Answer

Explanation

9

F

The answer can be found in “… the red phosphorus was non-toxic”

10

D

The answer can be found in “… three years later it was copied …”

11

E

The answer can be found in “… since white phosphorus is a deadly poison …”

12

C

The answer can be found in “The first matches resembling those used today …”

13

G

The answer can be found in “… a brewery had the novel idea of advertising …”

14

A

The answer can be found in “… a sealed glass tube …”

15

C

The answer can be found in “… borrowed the formula from a military rocket- maker …”

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