Striking back at lightning with lasers Reading Answers- IELTS SampleUpdated on 20 December, 2022
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To score the desired band scores in the IELTS exam, practice as many IELTS sample papers as possible. Here is a reading passage for practice under the topic ‘Striking back at lightning with lasers’, with questions and answers to help with your preparation for the reading portion of the exam.
Seldom is the weather more dramatic than when thunderstorms strike. Their electrical fury inflicts death or serious injury on around 500 people each year in the United States alone. As the clouds roll in, a leisurely round of golf can become a terrifying dice with death -out in the open, a lone golfer may be a lightning bolt's most inviting target. And there is damage to property too. Lightning damage costs American power companies more than $100 million a year.
But researchers in the United States and Japan are planning to hit back. Already in laboratory trials they have tested strategies for neutralizing the power of thunderstorms, and this winter they will brave real storms, equipped with an armory of lasers that they will be pointing towards the heavens to discharge thunderclouds before lightning can strike.
The idea of forcing storm clouds to discharge their lightning on command is not new. In the early 1960s, researchers tried firing rockets trailing wires into thunderclouds to set up an easy discharge path for the huge electric charges that these clouds generate. The technique survives to this day at a test site in Florida run by the University of Florida, with support from the Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI), based in California. EPRI, which is funded by power companies, is looking at ways to protect the United States' power grid from lightning strikes. ``We can cause the lightning to strike where we want it by using rockets': says Ralph Bernstein, manager of lightning projects at EPRI. The Rocket site is providing precise measurements of lightning voltages and allowing engineers to check how electrical equipment bears up.
But while rockets are fine for research, they cannot provide the protection from lightning strikes that everyone is looking for. The rockets cost around $1,200 each, can only be fired at a limited frequency and their failure rate is about 40 per cent. And even when they do trigger lightning, things still do not always go according to plan. 'Lightning is not perfectly well behaved,' says Bernstein. 'Occasionally, it will take a branch and go someplace it wasn't supposed to go.
And anyway, who would want to fire streams of rockets in a populated area? 'What goes up must come down,' points out Jean-Claude Diels of the University of New Mexico. Diels is leading a project, which is backed by EPRI, to try to use lasers to discharge lightning safely- and safety is a basic requirement since no one wants to put themselves or their expensive equipment at risk. With around $500,000 invested so far, a promising system is just emerging from the laboratory.
The idea began some 20 years ago, when high-powered lasers were revealing their ability to extract electrons out of atoms and create ions. If a laser could generate a line of ionisation in the air all the way up to a storm cloud, this conducting path could be used to guide lightning to Earth, before the electric field becomes strong enough to break down the air in an uncontrollable surge. To stop the laser itself being struck, it would not be pointed straight at the clouds. Instead it would be directed at a mirror, and from there into the sky. The mirror would be protected by placing lightning conductors close by. Ideally, the cloud-zapper (gun) would be cheap enough to be installed around all key power installations, and portable enough to be taken to international sporting events to beam up at brewing storm clouds.
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However, there is still a big stumbling block. The laser is no nifty portable: it's a monster that takes up a whole room. Diels is trying to cut down the size and says that a laser around the size of a small table is in the offing. He plans to test this more manageable system on live thunderclouds next summer.
Bernstein says that Diels's system is attracting lots of interest from the power companies. But they have not yet come up with the $5 million that EPRI says will be needed to develop a commercial system, by making the lasers yet smaller and cheaper. 'I cannot say I have money yet, but I'm working on it,' says Bernstein. He reckons that the forthcoming field tests will be the turning point - and he's hoping for good news. Bernstein predicts 'an avalanche of interest and support' if all goes well. He expects to see cloud-zappers eventually costing $50,000 to $100,000 each.
Other scientists could also benefit. With a lightning 'switch' at their fingertips, materials scientists could find out what happens when mighty currents meet matter. Diels also hopes to see the birth of 'interactive meteorology' - not just forecasting the weather but controlling it. 'If we could discharge clouds, we might affect the weather,' he says.
And perhaps, says Diels, we'll be able to confront some other meteorological menaces. 'We think we could prevent hail by inducing lightning,' he says. Thunder, the shock wave that comes from a lightning flash, is thought to be the trigger for the torrential rain that is typical of storms. A laser thunder factory could shake the moisture out of clouds, perhaps preventing the formation of the giant hailstones that threaten crops. With luck, as the storm clouds gather this winter, laser-toting researchers could, for the first time, strike back.
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C, or D.
Guidelines/Tip for Answering These Types of Questions: Candidates have to choose the right answer from the list of options provided. To answer these questions, read the passage carefully before making a choice.
Question 1. The main topic discussed in the text is
Question 2. According to the text, every year lightning
Question 3. Researchers at the University of Florida and at the University of New Mexico
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Complete the sentences below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Guidelines/Tip for Answering These Types of Questions: Candidates are asked to write no more than two words in this type of question. You can quickly scan the passage to answer these questions.
4.EPRI receives financial support from ...............
5.The advantage of the technique being developed by Diels is that it can be used ................
6. The main difficulty associated with using the laser equipment is related to its ...............
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Complete the summary using the list of words, A-I, below:
Guidelines/Tip for Answering These Types of Questions: Candidates have to choose the right answer from the list provided. To answer these questions, read the passage carefully before making a choice.
In this method, a laser is used to create a line of ionization by removing electrons from 7...................This laser is then directed at 8.......................in order to control electrical charges, a method which is less dangerous than using 9.......................As a protection for the lasers, the beams are aimed firstly at 10......................
C- storm clouds
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage 1?
YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
Guidelines/Tip for Answering These Types of Questions: Candidates have to identify the statements that agree with the passage by tallying them with the information provided in the passage. To answer these questions, read the passage carefully before marking it as Yes or No.
11. Power companies have given Diels enough money to develop his laser.
12. Obtaining money to improve the lasers will depend on tests in real storms.
13. Weather forecasters are intensely interested in Diels's system.
|1||D||This refers specifically to a technique by which an arsenal of lasers will be pointed at the heavens before lightning can strike the ground to neutralize thunderclouds before they strike.|
|2||A||It is clear from the text that in addition to being harmful to lone golfers, lightning is also harmful to property too.|
|3||A||In addition to Jean-Claude Diels's project, EPRI also funded another similar one.|
|4||Power companies||EPRI, based in California, researches how to protect the United States' power grid from lightning strikes as part of a project funded by power companies.|
|5||Safely||Diels' technique has been proven to be safe in previous tests.|
|6||Size||The size of the laser equipment is the primary difficulty in using it.|
|7||B||In this method, electrons are removed from atoms and ions are created by using a laser.|
|8||C||Storm clouds are targeted by the laser projected through the cloud-zapper (gun).|
|9||G||It was tested whether a method that was less dangerous than using rockets would be effective at controlling electrical charges.|
|10||D||Initially, the laser beams are directed at mirrors as a protection for the lasers.|
|11||No||The power companies have shown interest in the project, but they still haven't come up with $5 million.|
|12||YES||Tests in real storms will determine whether money can be obtained to improve the lasers.|
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