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Computer Security: IELTS Reading Passage with Questions and Answers

Updated on 17 January, 2024

upGrad Abroad Team

upGrad Abroad Team

upGrad abroad Editorial Team

Introduction

In the digital age, "Computer Security" has emerged as a pivotal aspect of technology management. It involves protecting computer systems from theft, damage, and unauthorized access. This article delves into various facets of computer security, offering insights into its importance, types, and challenges.

Passage: Computer Security: A Modern Imperative
In the era of digital expansion, computer security, also known as cybersecurity, has become a cornerstone of technology management. It is the practice of protecting systems, networks, and programs from digital attacks. These cyberattacks are usually aimed at accessing, changing, or destroying sensitive information; extorting money from users; or interrupting normal business processes.

Understanding the Scope
Implementing effective cybersecurity measures is particularly challenging today because there are more devices than people, and attackers are becoming more innovative. A successful cybersecurity approach has multiple layers of protection spread across the computers, networks, programs, or data that one intends to keep safe. In an organization, the people, processes, and technology must all complement one another to create an effective defense from cyber attacks.

The Evolution of Threats
In the early days of computing, cybersecurity was not a major concern. Early computers were standalone systems, and the few networks that existed were closed and internal. However, with the advent of the internet, the landscape changed drastically. Computers started getting interconnected globally, opening up a pandora's box of vulnerabilities and threats.

Types of Cyber Threats
There are many kinds of cyber threats, but some of the most common include:

Malware: It is a form of software designed to gain unauthorized access or to cause damage to a computer.
Phishing: This is the practice of sending fraudulent emails that resemble emails from reputable sources. The aim is to steal sensitive data like credit card numbers and login information.
Man-in-the-middle attack: This occurs when attackers insert themselves into a two-party transaction. Once the attackers interrupt the traffic, they can filter and steal data.
Denial-of-service attack: This is meant to overwhelm systems, servers, or networks with traffic to exhaust resources and bandwidth. As a result, the system is unable to fulfill legitimate requests.
SQL injection: This occurs when an attacker inserts malicious code into a server that uses SQL. This code forces the server to reveal information it normally would not.
Importance of Computer Security
Cybersecurity is essential because it encompasses everything that pertains to protecting our sensitive data, personally identifiable information (PII), protected health information (PHI), intellectual property, data, and governmental and industry information systems from theft and damage attempted by criminals and adversaries.

The world relies heavily on technology more than ever before. Consequently, digital data creation has surged. Today, businesses and governments store a great deal of that data on computers and transmit it across networks to other computers. Devices and their underlying systems have vulnerabilities that, when exploited, undermine the health and objectives of an organization.

The Human Element
A critical aspect often overlooked in the realm of cybersecurity is the human element. People can unintentionally introduce viruses to otherwise secure systems by failing to follow good security practices. Teaching users to delete suspicious email attachments, not plug in unidentified USB drives, and various other important lessons is vital for the security of any organization.

The Future of Cybersecurity
As the cybersecurity field evolves, AI and machine learning are playing an increasingly significant role. These technologies can analyze vast amounts of risk data to speed up response times and identify potential threats more quickly than traditional software-driven approaches.

Cybersecurity is a dynamic field, requiring continuous adaptation to new threats. As we look to the future, the proliferation of internet-connected devices, known as the Internet of Things (IoT), poses new security challenges. The increased connectivity means that devices are more vulnerable to being hacked. The field of cybersecurity will continue to grow and evolve in response to these and other emerging threats.

The Global Impact
Cybersecurity is not just a concern for businesses and governments but is a global issue that affects everyone. Cyberattacks can cause electrical blackouts, failure of military equipment, and breaches of national security secrets. They can result in the theft of valuable, sensitive data like medical records. They can disrupt phone and computer networks or paralyze systems, making data unavailable.

 

Questions and Answers
Q1. What is the primary focus of computer security?
A) Data transmission
B) Protecting against theft
C) Software development
D) Cloud computing
A1. B) Protecting against theft. Computer security primarily focuses on protecting computer systems from theft, damage, and unauthorized access.

Q2. Choose the correct statement:
A) Network security deals with physical hardware protection.
B) Application security is irrelevant in modern cybersecurity.
C) Cloud security has gained importance with the rise of cloud computing.
D) Cybersecurity is a static field with fixed protocols.
A2. C) Cloud security has gained importance with the rise of cloud computing. This highlights the evolving nature of computer security.

Q3. What is a significant consequence of a breach in computer security?
A) Increased website traffic
B) Enhanced system performance
C) Financial losses and reputation damage
D) Improved software efficiency
A3. C) Financial losses and reputation damage. A security breach can lead to substantial financial loss and damage to an organization's reputation.

Q4. Fill in the blank: __________ security focuses on protecting data during transmission.
A) Application
B) Cloud
C) Network
D) Software
A4. C) Network. Network security is about protecting data during its transmission.

Q5. True or False: Application security is only concerned with external threats.
A) True
B) False
A5. B) False. Application security addresses both external and internal threats to software and devices.

Q6. What is a common method used by cybercriminals?
A) User authentication
B) Data encryption
C) Phishing
D) Secure coding practices
A6. C) Phishing. It's a prevalent method used by cybercriminals to exploit vulnerabilities.

Q7. Which aspect of computer security has become more relevant due to the shift to cloud computing?
A) Password management
B) Cloud security
C) Email filtering
D) Antivirus software
A7. B) Cloud security. The move to cloud computing has heightened the relevance of cloud security.

Q8. Fill in the blank: Malware is a type of __________ used to disrupt computer operations.
A) Security protocol
B) Software update
C) Cyber threat
D) Network tool
A8. C) Cyber threat. Malware is a type of cyber threat that disrupts computer operations.

Q9. True or False: Cybersecurity measures remain effective without regular updates.
A) True
B) False
A9. B) False. Cybersecurity measures require regular updates to remain effective against evolving threats.

Q10. Which of the following is not a component of computer security?
A) Social media management
B) Network security
C) Application security
D) Cloud security
A10. A) Social media management. It is not typically considered a direct component of computer security.
 

Conclusion
Understanding computer security is crucial in today’s digital era. As cyber threats grow more sophisticated, the importance of staying informed and proactive in implementing security measures cannot be overstated. This knowledge is not only vital for IT professionals but for anyone who uses digital technology.
 

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upGrad Abroad Team

upGrad abroad Editorial Team

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