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Learn How to Become a Genetic Engineer

Updated on 08 October, 2023

upGrad Abroad Team

upGrad Abroad Team

upGrad abroad Editorial Team

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Genetic engineers are trained professionals proficient in employing a range of molecular techniques and technologies to manipulate segments of DNA. Their overarching objective is to either introduce beneficial changes to an organism's genetic composition or transfer DNA sequences between different species. There is a wide range of career paths that graduates can choose from after completing their courses, such as Bioinformatics Scientist, Genetics Researcher, Forensic DNA Analyst, and Genetics Professor/lecturer. Let’s learn about how to become a genetic engineer, career paths, and universities.


Academic Qualifications/Eligibility Needed To Become A Genetic Engineer

Courses that lead to becoming a genetic engineer are:

  • Undergraduate/Postgraduate/PhD in Genetic Engineering
  • Undergraduate/Postgraduate/PhD in Biotechnology
  • Undergraduate/Postgraduate/PhD in Biomedical Instrumentation
  • Undergraduate/Postgraduate/PhD in Bioinformatics
  • Undergraduate/Postgraduate/PhD in Biomedical Engineering
  • Undergraduate/Postgraduate/PhD in Bioprocess Technology
  • Undergraduate/Postgraduate/PhD in Biotechnology and Biochemical Engineering


Individuals aspiring to pursue a career as genetic engineers should meet the following educational qualifications:

  • Completion of 10+2 in MBiPC with a minimum aggregate score of 60% from a recognized examination board.
  • Successful clearance of entrance examinations with a strong score.
  • Attainment of a bachelor's degree in genetic engineering from a recognized university or institution.

Top Colleges Abroad to Pursue Genetic Engineering

Stanford University


  1. Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (Online)
  2. Bachelor of Science degree (BS) in Bioengineering or Biomedical Computation
  3. Coterminal Program in Bioengineering
  4. Master's and Ph.D. in Bioengineering 

Avg. Fee- $695.00 (genetic engineering and biotechnology)

Course Duration-  1 year (Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology)

Location - California

University of Cambridge


  1. Introduction to the Teaching of Genetics (Undergraduate)
  2. Introduction to Postgraduate Study in the Department of Genetics
  3. Research (Developmental Biology, Cell Biology, Epigenetic Inheritance, Microbial Genetics, Evolution and Population Genetics, Functional Genomics

Avg. Fee- NA

Course Duration- 4 years 

Location - Cambridge, United Kingdom

Harvard University


  1. Biological & Biomedical Sciences (BBS)- PhD
  2. Nanocourses & Quarter Courses-PhD
  3. Program in Genetics and Genomics-PhD


  1. Case Studies in Functional Genomics (Free)
  2. Bioethics: The Law, Medicine, and Ethics of Reproductive Technologies and Genetics (Free)
  3. Epigenetics, Epitranscriptomics, and Gene Regulation ($2,040)
  4. Harvard VPAL CRISPR: Gene-editing Applications ($1,600)
  5. HMX Genetics ($800)
  6. Cancer Genomics and Precision Oncology ($995)
  7. Gene Therapy ($995)
  8. Genetic Testing and Sequencing Technologies ($995)
  9. Genetics – Essentials ($995)

Avg. Fees$57,418 per year, full-time (Masters)

Course Duration- 8-10 weeks (online courses)

Location - Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA

Cornell University


Molecular Biology and Genetics

Undergraduate programs-

  1. Biochemistry
  2. Molecular and Cell Biology
  3. Genetics, Genomics and Development
  4. Summer Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Program  

Biomedical Engineering 

  1. Molecular/Cellular/Systems
  2. Engineering Biomaterials & Drug Delivery 
  3. Biomedical imaging and instrumentation 
  4. Biomechanics and Mechanobiology

Graduate Programs-

  1. Biochemistry, Molecular, and Cell Biology
  2. Genetics, Genomics, and Development (GG&D)
  3. Biophysics
  4. Cellular, Biochemical, and Molecular Sciences Pre-doctoral Training Program


  1. Biomechanics & mechanobiology Biomedical imaging & instrumentation 
  2. Drug delivery & nanomedicine
  3. Molecular & cellular engineering 
  4. Systems & synthetic biology 
  5. Tissue engineering & biomaterials

Avg. Fees-$65,204/year (undergraduate degree)

$20,800/year (graduate degree)

Course Duration - Biometric Engineering- 4 years

Location - Ithaca, New York

Columbia University


  1. Master's Program in Genetic Counseling
  2. PhD Training Program 

Avg. Fees- $94,750 (Master's Program in Genetic Counseling)

Course Duration- 21 months (Master's Program in Genetic Counseling)

Location - New York, United States

University of Toronto


Undergraduate Programs

  1. Molecular Genetics and Microbiology Specialist
  2. Genome Biology Major
  3. Molecular Genetics and Microbiology Major

Graduate Studies (MSc and Research)

  1. Genetic Models of Development and Disease 
  2. Molecular medicine and human genetics
  3. Cellular and molecular structure and function
  4. Molecular Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Computational and Systems Biology
  5. Functional Genomics and Proteomics

Avg Fees- NA

Course Duration- NA

Location - Toronto, Canada

University of Oxford


  1. Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering

Graduate Program

  1. MSc in Genomic Medicine

Research/Graduate Programs

  1. Genes, genetics, epigenetics, and genomics
  2. Interdisciplinary Bioscience DTP (BBSRC)
  3.  DPhil Biomedical Sciences (NIH OxCam)

Doctoral Training Center Degrees 

  1. Chromosome and Developmental Biology Doctoral Training
  2. Fellowship Scheme for Clinicians 
  3. Genomic Medicine and Statistics

Avg. Fees-

Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering- £2300 


Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering- 1-week 

Graduate Course- 1 year (full-time)

Location-Oxford, England

Duke University


  1. Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

Avg. Fee- $31,762.50

Course Duration- NA

Location - Durham, USA

Imperial College London

Courses- Research in

  1. Genetics & Genomics
  2. Biomolecular Medicine
  3. Bioinformatics 
  4. Bioanalytical Chemistry

Avg. fees- NA

Course Duration- NA

Location - London, England

John Hopkins University


  1. Molecular Biology and Genetics- Graduate program
  2. Molecular and Cellular Biology Major Requirements (B.S.)- Undergraduate program

Avg. Fee- $62,850 per year (for Graduate program)

Course Duration- NA

Location - USA

Top Colleges in India to Pursue Genetic Engineering

The following are India's best genetic engineering colleges:

Indian Institute of Science


  1. Biochemistry 
  2. Ecological Sciences
  3. Microbiology and Cell Biology
  4. Molecular Biophysics
  5. Molecular Reproduction Development and Genetics Department

Avg. Fee- ₹20,000-2 Lakh (depending upon course type)

Course Duration- 

  • PhD - 4–5 years
  • Masters- 2 years
  • Bachelors 3–4 years

Location - Bangalore

Anna University 


  1. BTech Industrial Biotechnology Program

Avg. Fee- NA

Course Duration- 

  • 4 years (8 semesters)

Location - Chennai

Indian Institute of Technology (Roorkee) 


  1. BTech Biosciences and Bioengineering
  2. MSc Biotechnology
  3. MTech Bioprocess Engineering
  4. PhD

Avg. Fee- ₹20,000- 80,000 (depending upon course type)

Course Duration- 

  • PhD - 4–5 years
  • Masters- 2 years
  • Bachelors 3–4 years

Location- Roorkie

Aryabhatta Knowledge University


  1. Biochemistry & Biotechnology (Research level)
  2. Biochemistry (Pg)
  3. Biophysics(Pg)

Avg. Fee-NA

Course Duration- 3 years (PG)

Location - Patna

Jawaharlal Nehru Center for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR)


  1. Evolutionary and Organismal Biology Unit (PhD)
  2. Neurosciences (PhD, MSc)
  3. Evolutionary and Organismal Biology (PhD, MSc)

Avg. Fee-- NA

Course Duration- NA

Location - Bangalore

Career and Job Prospects for A Genetic Engineer

The average salary of a genetic engineer in India:


Average Salary in India 

  1. Genetic Technologist


  1. Genetics Counselor 


  1. Genetic Researcher

₹3, 69,000/yr

The average salary of a genetic engineer abroad:


Average Salary Abroad

  1. Genetic Engineer


  1. Genetics Counselor


  1. Molecular Geneticist


  1. Bioinformatics Scientist


  1. Forensic DNA Analyst


Read More: Top Engineering Courses After 12th


What are the uses of genetic engineering?

Genetic engineering finds practical use in diverse fields such as medicine, research, industry, and agriculture, with the capability to be applied across a broad spectrum of plants, animals, and microorganisms.

What are the types of genetic engineering?

A variety of genetic engineering techniques include

  1. Microbial Vectors
  2. Microprojectile Bombardment
  3. Electroporation
  4. Microinjection
  5. Transposons/Transposable Elements
  6. Nontransgenic Molecular Methods of Manipulation

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